C5. Legitimation


Through a process of legitimation, features of the new style are coordinated with customary practices, integrating into reordered predispositions.



As the new subworld copes with the dealing with the disharmonies.

Note: Consider Loyalty, Exit and Voice


five types of legitimacy for a focal firm, which are distinguishable on the basis of these drivers. More specifically, we propose that these determinants may encourage a firm to enter into a strategic alliance to gain market legitimacy, relational legitimacy, social legitimacy, investment legitimacy or alliance legitimacy.


Legitimation refers to the social justification of an actor or activity, such that the actor or activity is publicly validated or endorsed (Perrow, 1961).

Dacin: Following Suchman (1995: 574),

legitimacy is defined as ‘a generalized perception or assumption that the actions of an entity are desirable, proper, or appropriate within some socially constructed system of norms, values, beliefs, and definitions.’ Legitimacy varies across firms and is bestowed discriminately through a process of social endorsement.

(Bourdieu & Wacquant 1996, 76)

"The field of power is a field of forces defined by the structure of the existing balance of forces between forms of power, or between different species of capital. It is also simultaneously a field of struggles for power among the holders of different forms of power. It is a space of play and competition in which social
agents and institutions which all posses the determinate quantity of specific capital (economic and cultural capital in particular) sufficient to occupy the dominant positions within their respective fields [the economic field, the field of higher civil service or the state, the university field, and the intellectual field] confront one another in strategies aimed at preserving or transforming this balance of forces... This struggle for the imposition of the dominant principle leads, at every moment, to a balance in the sharing of power, that is, to what I call a division of the work of domination. It is also a struggle over the legitimate principle of legitimation and the legitimate mode of reproduction"


Legitimacy refers to the degree to which an organization’s actions are considered consistent with existing institutional logics, norms, and beliefs (Suchman, 1995). Firms are perceived as more legitimate when their actions conform to industry norms and are therefore similar to those of other firms in the industry (Meyer and Rowan, 1977; DiMaggio and Powell, 1983). Thus, although firms strive to be different from their competitors because such differences enable them to gain competitive advantage (Young et al., 1996), they also need to ensure that they are sufficiently similar because the similarity ensures that their actions are perceived as legitimate (Deephouse, 1999).