B. Method -- Inductive Case Study

Six sources of evidence from Yin (2003)

1. Documentation,  includes

  • Letters, memoranda, and other communiques
  • Agendas, announcements and minutes of meetings, and other written reports of events
  • Administrative records — proposals, progress reports, and other internal records
  • Formal studies or evaluations of the same "site" under study
  • Newspaper clippings and other articles appearing in the mass media or in community newsletters [pp. 85-86]

2. Archival records, includes

  • Service records, such as those showing the numer of clients served over a given period of time
  • Organizational records, such as organizational charts and budgets over a period of time
  • Maps and charts of the geographic characteristics or layouts of a place
  • Lists of names and other relevant items
  • Survey data, such as census records or data previously collected about a "site"
  • Personal records, such a diaries, calendars, and telephone listings  [pp. 88-89]

3. Interviews, can be:

  • open-ended;
  • focused; or
  • a formal survey

4. Direct observation (from formal to casual)

5. Participant-observation (assuming a variety of roles)

6. Physical artifacts: technological device, tool or instrument, work of art, of some other phyiscal evidence