The popularization of the Smarter Cities movement coincided with IBM's campaign originating from 2009. The Smarter Cities ideas was an outgrowth from the Smarter Planet initiatives, which had emerged from the IBM Global Innovation Outlooks beginning in 2004.
This speaker was a consultant at IBM involved in Smarter Cities engagements, while simultanously conducing research into Service Systems Science.
The evolution of ideas both outside and inside IBM are reviewed, through a history of (i) systems sciences; (ii) service science, management, engineering and design (SSMED), (iii) service systems science; and (iv) smarter planet and smarter cities. Looking forward, the prospects for the (v) cognitive era and a (vi) service systems thinking is outlined
David Ing, "Systems Coevolving: Sciences, Service, Smarter, Cognitive", Urban Studies course, Aalto Built Environment Laboratory, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland, February 10, 2016.
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